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Logic

Author: Stan Baronett
Publisher: New York : Oxford University Press, 2018.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : English : Concise edition ; fourth editionView all editions and formats
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Additional Physical Format: Print version:
Baronett, Stan.
Logic.
New York : Oxford University Press, 2018
(DLC) 2018003150
Material Type: Document
Document Type: Book, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Stan Baronett
ISBN: 9780190691714 0190691719 9780190691844 0190691840
OCLC Number: 1031408707
Description: 1 online resource
Contents: Preface: PART I: SETTING THE STAGEChapter 1. What Logic StudiesA. Statements and ArgumentsB. Recognizing ArgumentsExercises 1B: C. Arguments and ExplanationsExercises 1C: D. Truth and LogicE. Deductive and Inductive ArgumentsExercises 1E: F. Deductive Arguments: Validity and SoundnessArgument FormCounterexamplesSummary of Deductive ArgumentsExercises 1F: G. Inductive Arguments: Strength and CogencyTechniques of AnalysisThe Role of New InformationSummary of Inductive ArgumentsExercises 1G: H. Reconstructing ArgumentsExercises 1H: LOGIC CHALLENGE: The Problem of the HatsPART II: INFORMAL LOGICChapter 2. Language MattersA. Intension and ExtensionTerms, Use, and MentionTwo Kinds of MeaningProper NamesExercises 2A: B. Using Intensional DefinitionsSynonymous DefinitionsWord Origin DefinitionsOperational DefinitionsDefinition by Genus and DifferenceC. Using Extensional DefinitionsOstensive DefinitionsEnumerative DefinitionsDefinition by SubclassExercises 2C: D. Applying DefinitionsStipulative DefinitionsLexical DefinitionsFunctional DefinitionsPrecising DefinitionsTheoretical DefinitionsPersuasive DefinitionsExercises 2D: E. Guidelines for Informative DefinitionsExercises 2E: F. Cognitive and Emotive MeaningExercises 2F: G. Factual And Verbal DisputesExercises 2G: LOGIC CHALLENGE: The PathChapter 3. Diagramming ArgumentsA. The Basics of Diagramming ArgumentsB. Diagramming Extended ArgumentsExercises 3B: LOGIC CHALLENGE: The Train to VegasChapter 4. Informal FallaciesA. Why Study Fallacies?B. Fallacies Based on Personal Attacks or Emotional AppealsFallacies Based on Personal Attacks1. Ad Hominem Abusive2. Ad Hominem Circumstantial3. Poisoning the Well4. Tu Quoque: Fallacies Based on Emotional Appeals5. Appeal to the People6. Appeal to Pity7. Appeal to Fear or ForceSummary of Fallacies Based on Personal AttacksSummary of Fallacies Based on Emotional AppealsExercises 4B: C. Weak Inductive Argument FallaciesGeneralization Fallacies8. Rigid Application of a Generalization9. Hasty Generalization10. Composition11. Division12. Biased SampleFalse Cause Fallacies13. Post Hoc: 14. Slippery SlopeSummary of Weak Inductive Argument FallaciesExercises 4C: D. Fallacies of Unwarranted Assumption or DiversionUnwarranted Assumption15. Begging the Question16. Complex Question17. Appeal to Ignorance18. Appeal to an Unqualified Authority19. False DichotomyFallacies of Diversion20. Equivocation21. Straw Man22. Red Herring23. Misleading Precision24. Missing the PointSummary of Fallacies of Unwarranted Assumption and DiversionExercises 4D: E. Recognizing Fallacies in Ordinary LanguageExercises 4E: LOGIC CHALLENGE: A Clever ProblemPART III: FORMAL LOGICChapter 5. Categorical PropositionsA. Categorical PropositionsExercises 5A: B. Quantity, Quality, and DistributionExercises 5B: C. Existential ImportD. The Modern Square of Opposition and Venn DiagramsVenn DiagramsExercises 5D: E. Conversion, Obversion, and Contraposition in the Modern SquareConversionObversionContrapositionDiagramsSummary of Conversion, Obversion, and ContrapositionExercises 5E: F. The Traditional Square of Opposition and Venn DiagramsExercises 5F.1: Venn Diagram and the Traditional SquareExercises 5F.2: G. Conversion, Obversion, and Contraposition in the Traditional SquareSummary of Conversion, Obversion, and ContrapositionConversionObversionContrapositionExercises 5G: H. Translating Ordinary Language into Categorical PropositionsMissing Plural NounsNonstandard VerbsSingular PropositionsAdverbs and Pronouns"It Is False That . . . "Implied QuantifiersNonstandard QuantifiersConditional StatementsExclusive Propositions"The Only"Propositions Requiring Two TranslationsExercises 5H: LOGIC CHALLENGE: Group RelationshipChapter 6. Categorical SyllogismsA. Standard-Form Categorical SyllogismsB. Mood and FitureExercises 6B: C. Diagramming in the Modern InterpretationDiagramming A-PropositionsDiagramming E-PropositionsDiagramming I-PropositionsDiagramming O-PropositionsWrapping Up the XIs the Syllogism Valid?Exercises 6C: D. Rules and Fallacies Under the Modern InterpretationRule 1: The middle term must be distributed in at least one premiseAssociated Fallacy: Undistributed Middle: Rule 2: If a term is distributed in the conclusion, then it must be distributed in a premiseAssociated Fallacies: Illicit Major/Illicit Minor: Rule 3: A categorical syllogism cannot have two negative premisesAssociated Fallacy: Exclusive Premises: Rule 4: A negative premise must have a negative conclusionAssociated Fallacy: Affirmative Conclusion/Negative Premise: Rule 5: A negative conclusion must have a negative premiseAssociated Fallacy: Negative Conclusion/Affirmative Premises: Rule 6: Two universal premises cannot have a particular conclusionAssociated Fallacy: Existential Fallacy: Exercises 6D: E. Diagramming in the Traditional InterpretationA-PropositionsE-PropositionsExercises 6E: F. Rules and Fallacies Under the Traditional InterpretationExercises 6F: G. Ordinary Language ArgumentsReducing the Number of Terms in an ArgumentExercises 6G.1: Paraphrasing Ordinary Language ArgumentsCategorical Propositions and Multiple ArgumentsExercises 6G.2: H. EnthymemesExercises 6H: I. SoritesExercises 6I: LOGIC CHALLENGE: Relationships RevisitedChapter 7. Propositional LogicA. Logical Operators and TranslationsSimple and Compound StatementsNegationConjunctionDisjunctionConditionalDistinguishing "If" from "Only If"Sufficient and Necessary ConditionsBiconditionalExercises 7A: B. Compound StatementsWell-Formed FormulasExercises 7B.1: Main OperatorExercises 7B.2: Translations and the Main OperatorExercises 7B.3: C. Truth FunctionsDefining the Five Logical OperatorsNegationConjunctionDisjunctionConditionalBiconditionalExercises 7C.1: Operator Truth Tables and Ordinary LanguagePropositions with Assigned Truth ValuesExercises 7C.2: D. Truth Tables for PropositionsArranging the Truth ValuesThe Order of OperationsExercises 7D: E. Contingent and Noncontingent StatementsTautologySelf-ContradictionExercises 7E: F. Logical Equivalence and Contradictory, Consistent, and Inconsistent StatementsLogical EquivalenceExercises 7F.1: Contradictory, Consistent, and Inconsistent StatementsExercises 7F.2: G. Truth Tables for ArgumentsValidityAnalyzing Sufficient and Necessary Conditions in ArgumentsTechnical ValidityExercises 7G.1: Argument FormsExercises 7G.2: H. Indirect Truth TablesThinking Through an ArgumentA Shorter Truth TableExercises 7H.1: Using Indirect Truth Tables to Examine Statements for ConsistencyExercises 7H.2: LOGIC CHALLENGE: A Card ProblemChapter 8. Natural DeductionA. Natural DeductionB. Implication Rules IModus Ponens (MP)Modus Tollens (MT)Hypothetical Syllogism (HS)Disjunctive Syllogism (DS)Justification: Applying the Rules of InferenceExercises 8B: C. Tactics and StrategyApplying the First Four Implication RulesExercises 8C: D. Implication Rules IISimplification (Simp)Conjunction (Conj)Addition (Add)Constructive Dilemma (CD)Applying the Second Four Implication RulesExercises 8D: E. Replacement Rules IDe Morgan (DM)Double Negation (DN)Commutation (Com)Association (Assoc)Distribution (Dist)Applying the First Five Replacement RulesExercises 8E: F. Replacement Rules IITransposition (Trans)Material Implication (Impl)Material Equivalence (Equiv)Exportation (Exp)Tautology (Taut)Applying the Second Five Replacement RulesExercises 8F: G. Conditional ProofExercises 8G: H. Indirect ProofExercises 8H: I. Proving Logical TruthsExercises 8I: LOGIC CHALLENGE: The TruthChapter 9. Predicate LogicA. Translating Ordinary LanguageSingular StatementsUniversal StatementsParticular StatementsPaying Attention to MeaningExercises 9A: B. Four New Rules of InferenceUniversal Instantiation (UI)Universal Generalization (UG)Existential Generalization (EG)Existential Instantiation (EI)Summary of the Four RulesTactics and StrategyExercises 9B: C. Change of Quantifier (CQ)Exercises 9C: D. Conditional and Indirect ProofConditional Proof (CP)Indirect Proof (IP)Exercises 9D: E. Demonstrating InvalidityCounterexample MethodFinite Universe MethodIndirect Truth TablesExercises 9E: F. Relational PredicatesTranslationsExercises 9F.1: ProofsA New RestrictionChange of QuantifierConditional Proof and Indirect ProofExercises 9F.2: G. IdentitySimple Identity Statements"Only""The Only""No . . . Except""All Except"Superlatives"At Most""At Least""Exactly"Definite DescriptionsExercises 9G.1: ProofsExercises 9G.2: LOGIC CHALLENGE: Your Name and Age, PleasePART IV: INDUCTIVE LOGICChapter 10. Analogical ArgumentsA. The Framework of Analogical ArgumentsExercises 10A: B. Analyzing Analogical ArgumentsCriteria for Analyzing Analogical ArgumentsExercises 10B: C. Strategies of EvaluationDisanalogiesCounteranalogyUnintended ConsequencesCombining StrategiesExercises 10C: LOGIC CHALLENGE: Beat the CheatChapter 11. Legal ArgumentsA. Deductive and Inductive ReasoningB. Conditional StatementsC. Sufficient and Necessary ConditionsD. Disjunction and ConjunctionE. Analyzing a Complex RuleExercises 11E: F. AnalogiesG. The Role of PrecedentExercises 11G: LOGIC CHALLENGE: A Guilty ProblemChapter 12. Moral ArgumentsA. Value JudgmentsJustifying "Should"Types of Value JudgmentsTaste and ValueExercises 12A: B. Moral TheoriesEmotivismConsequentialismEgoismUtilitarianismDeontologyRelativismContrasting Moral TheoriesExercises 12B: C. The Naturalistic FallacyD. The Structure of Moral ArgumentsE. Analogies and Moral ArgumentsExercises 12E: LOGIC CHALLENGE: Dangerous CargoChapter 13. Statistical Arguments and ProbabilityA. Samples and PopulationsExercises 13A: B. Statistical AveragesExercises 13B: C. Standard DeviationDividing the CurveThe Size of the Standard DeviationHow to Calculate the Standard DeviationExercises 13C: D. What If the Results Are Skewed?E. The Misuse of StatisticsExercises 13E: F. Probability TheoriesA Priori TheoryRelative Frequency TheorySubjectivist TheoryG. Probability CalculusConjunction MethodsDisjunction MethodsNegation MethodExercises 13G: H. True Odds in Games of ChanceI. Bayesian TheoryExercises 13I: LOGIC CHALLENGE: The Second ChildChapter 14. Causality and Scientific ArgumentsA. Sufficient and Necessary ConditionsExercises 14A: B. CausalityC. Mill's MethodsMethod of AgreementMethod of DifferenceJoint Method of Agreement and DifferenceMethod of ResiduesMethod of Concomitant VariationsExercises 14C: D. Limitations of Mill's MethodsE. Theoretical and Experimental ScienceF. Inference to the Best ExplanationG. Hypothesis Testing, Experiments, and PredictionsControlled ExperimentsDetermining CausalityH. Science and SuperstitionThe Need for a Fair TestVerifiable PredictionsNontrivial PredictionsConnecting the Hypothesis and PredictionScience and SuperstitionThe Allure of SuperstitionExercises 14H: LOGIC CHALLENGE: The Scale and the CoinsOnline Chapter 15. Analyzing a Long EssayA. Childbed FeverB. ViennaExercises 15B: C. Miasm and ContagionExercises 15C: D. Semmelweis's Account of the DiscoveryExercises 15D: E. Initial QuestionsExercises 15E: F. A New InterpretationExercises 15F: * Appendix A. The LSAT and Logical Reasoning1. Logical Reasoning2. Deductive and Inductive Arguments3. Identifying Conclusions and PremisesA. Identifying the ConclusionB. Choosing the Best Missing ConclusionC. Assumptions: Choosing the Best Missing Premise4. Additional Information That Strengthens or Weakens an Argument5. Arguments That Use Either Analogical, Statistical, or Causal ReasoningA. Analogical ReasoningB. Statistical ReasoningC. Causal Reasoning6. Explaining or Resolving Given Information7. Argument FlawsA. Fallacies Based on Personal Attacks or Emotional AppealsB. Weak Inductive Argument FallaciesC. Fallacies of Unwarranted Assumption or Diversion8. Recognizing Reasoning PatternsA. Class TermsB. Conditional StatementsC. Translating Conditional StatementsD. Distinguishing "If" from "Only If"E. Conditionals and ArgumentsF. Sufficient and Necessary Conditions9. Continuing the ProcessAppendix B. The Truth About Philosophy MajorsCareersSalariesMeaningResourcesGlossary: Answers to Selected Exercises: Index:
Responsibility: Stan Baronett.

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"This is the best logic text available; it's extremely accessible and engaging without sacrificing any rigor at all. It could be the only logic text on the market that students genuinely enjoy Read more...

 
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